||Rahbord 59 - The Scientific Research
Family Capital: The Cornerstone of Social Capital
Dr. Hassan Rouhani
This article mainly concentrates on social capital. It first addresses to different kinds of capital and then elaborates on the views expressed by the theorists of social capital. Having criticized the views expressing the negative side of social capital, the author refers to its values and Islamic views on the concept of social capital, then, he defines the concept of "family capital" as a set of accumulative social capital, reproduction and redistribution in the family. He also studies the constraints related to the evaluation of mutual relations between social capital and family life and the erosive effects of the modern family on family capital in the West (influenced by extensive change of family institution). Finally, the pathology of family capital in Iran is analyzed by indicating four important deficiencies (which mostly influenced by the developments of the modern era) and some warnings are issued against its diverging and threatening aspects.
Keywords: social capital, family capital, family solidarity, value gap, consumerism
Theoretical and Strategic Foundations of Enhancing Social and Cultural Security in Tehran
Seyed Reza Salehi Amiri
Afsar Afshari Naderi
Although anomalies in different societies are to some extent natural, the essence of social life is always faced with shortages, deficiencies and disruptions, that make the emergence of anomalies unavoidable. The point is that when these anomalies transform into social problems, they should be tackled by adopting solutions based on studies devoted to the identification of factors responsible for them. Problems related to social and cultural security are non-individual, real, relative, rule-governed and controllable phenomena understanding of which requires the existence of a specific and thoughtful social unit guided by group interaction. The concept of "cultural security" derives from the idea that in every system, security should be considered among the basic rights of citizens; rights which people can ask for their observation by authorities. New discourses on social security, contrary to traditional views, studies security in its social context, therefore, social factors become much important in the development, establishment and survival of security. In this framework, different analytical paradigms consistent with the social situation of each society emerge to analyze and devise strategies for security. This article while surveying security perception in Tehran, tries to obtain solutions for controlling social problems. Findings show that among variables affecting security including lack of organization, social capital, distrust, cultural capital and social protection, the most influential is cultural capital. Therefore, with a glance at the society and given the obtained results, the authors devise a model for enhancing the management of social and cultural security.
Keywords: security, social security, cultural security, security perception, lack of social organization, social capital, cultural capital, social protection, cultural and social security management.
The Criteria of Methodological Evaluation of Future Studies Techniques
Given the lack of related literature and the neglect of basic subjects, this article tries to expand methodological subjects in the field of future studies. The main problem addressed in this article is the study of the criteria of evaluating the findings of future studies and prevalent measures of evaluation and distinction of different techniques in future studies to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each of them. To do this, the author, first, studies the position of future studies compared to other methods of research, and the prevalent techniques used in future studies. Then, he examines the expectations of the clients of the products of future studies which include senior state decision-makers, entrepreneurs, and private sector managers and describes the most important methodological criteria to evaluate futurist methods including different kinds of futures, priority setting, determination of driving forces, causation mechanism, introduction of actors, theoretical framework and scientific laws, validation of findings, and method dynamics. Finally, each method is compared to criteria along a two dimensional matrix. The author concludes that each method has its own relative merit and in technique selection, its merits and expectations which to be met should be considered. At the end, the author suggests that researchers use a mix of futurist methods in implementing the projects of futurology.
Keywords: future studies, futurism, futurist techniques, futurology, methodology
Relationship between National Identity and National Unity in Iran
Ali Asghar Ghassemi
National unity is one of the components of national power and security which has been always a subject for study by thinkers in the field of political sociology and also has been interested by statesmen in different countries. This issue has attracted more attention in recent decades due to the factors such as fall of colonial system and formation of new nation-states; collapse of the Easter bloc; intensification of ethnic disputes in some countries; globalization; and finally increase in international migrations. One of the subjects which is closely related to national unity is "national identity". National identity is one of the most fundamental elements and a necessary precondition for achieving national unity and solidarity. Since Iran is among the countries that has always, during its long history, been faced with the preservation and strengthening of national unity and solidarity, this article tries to explain relationship between these two concepts in Iran drawing upon a historical sociology approach. To do this, two periods in ancient and modern history of Iran characterized by rise and fall of national unity in Iran were studied. Findings show that in studied periods, there were a direct relationship between national identity and national unity and the strengthening or weakening of national solidarity have been influenced by policies and actions of governments regarding national identity.
Keywords: Iran, national identity, national unity
Relationship between "Critical Rationality" and Social Morality
Hassan Ali Bakhtiar Nasrabadi
Mohammad Hossein Heidari
Hamid Reza Behravan
This article aims at introducing the idea of critical rationality from Popper's point of view and recognizing its relationship with social morality. Popper is a philosopher who cares for improving morality within human society and emphasized the role of some moral principles in rationality and obtaining knowledge. He believes that the rational interactions of human beings should be based on "tolerance", "scientific modesty" and "respect for others' views". This article introduces the idea of "critical rationality" after reviewing the criticisms made by Popper regarding traditional epistemological models. Then, the authors explore its relation with morality and discuss some resulted moral principles such as "equality of human beings in knowledge and value", "scientific modesty", "critical dialogue" and "moral autonomy". They assume that Popper's view can serve as a directive in social morality.
Keywords: epistemology, critical rationality, social morality, moral education, Carl Popper
A Study of Women's Perception of Enjoying Citizen's Rights and Factors Affecting It
Citizen's right is a collection of rights, which persons possess because of their citizenship and is also a general application on all privileges related to citizens, and a collection of rules that governs their situation in society. This study engages in looking into enjoyment level of women from citizen's rights and effective factors .
The results show high social rank of women is effective on their higher enjoyment from citizen's rights (r = 0.21). These results show sexual receptivity of women by society is effective on their lower enjoyment from citizen's rights (r = -0.09). Also the results show sexual division in household tasks is effective on lower enjoyment of women from citizen's rights (r = -0.09). Based on the obtained results it is perceptible that increase of age is effective on lower enjoyment of women from citizen's rights (r = -0.69). It should be mentioned that consequently we deduce that enjoyment level of women from citizen's rights has significant different between married and single ones (t = -25.276). Meanwhile, the results show sexual receptivity of women by society is effective on their sexual division in household tasks (r = 0.69). Based on findings also we understand that increase of age is effective on increase of sexual receptivity of women by society (r = 0.12), and on increase of their sexual division in household tasks (r = 0.10).
The results obtained by multivariable Regression Analysis show that there are five variables including social rank, sexual receptivity by society, sexual division in household tasks, age and marriage status of respondents, which insert in equation, and totally explain 69% of the changes in the dependent variable.
Keywords: development, citizen's right, social rank, sexual receptivity by society, sexual division in household tasks, age, marriage status.
A Study of Relationship between Organizational Culture and Knowledge Management in the City of Semnan
Aliakbar Amin Beidokhti
Shahrokh Makvand Hosseini
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management in the city of semnan education department.
Research method used is descriptive and correlation type. Statistical population composed of 186 managers and assistant managers of elementary and secondary schools in 1388-89 academic year, of which 150 individuals were randomly selected through stratified sampling mehod. The instruments used were Cameron and Quinn questionnaire composed of 24 questions and Lawson Shersons questionnaire composed of 24 questions for measuring organizational culture and knowledge management respectively. Data were analyzed with correlation coefficient test and regression analysis.
Research findings indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management.On the whole during regression analysis, results in first step components of adhocracy culture has been anticipated and explained 58 percent of changes and in second step tribal culture has been added to the equation and explained 60 percent of the knowledge management changes. As a result, one can say that organizational culture is one of the most important tools for the establishment and implimentation of knowledge management in every organization.
Keywords: organizational culture, knowledge management, tribal culture, adhocracy culture, market culture, hierarchical culture.
Formulating an Indigenous Model for Enhancing Organizational Entrepreneurship in University: A Case Study - Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch
Farshad Rahmati Zanjantalab
This article is based on a research conducted in 2009 to formulate an indigenous model for enhancing organizational entrepreneurship in Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. Its theoretical framework is a threefold model comprising three categories of factors: structural, behavioral (content) and grounded (environmental) which can be effective in enhancing organizational entrepreneurship. This research is descriptive using social survey and correlation method. Its statistical population is composed of 750 persons from managers, senior and intermediate staff of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. Findings show that this branch does not enjoy a desirable entrepreneurship situation and it would be necessary that entrepreneurship activities are encouraged and facilitated by paying more attention to structural, behavioral, and grounded factors. Based on obtained results, a model for enhancing organizational entrepreneurship on the basis of structural, behavioral and grounded factors in Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, is presented.
Keywords: enhancing organizational entrepreneurship, structural factors, behavioral factors, grounded factors, threefold model
A Study of the Impact of Out-group Social Capital on Economic Development in Iran's Provinces
Mehdi Adibi Sedeh
In recent years, discussions on the positive results of social capital have become prevalent; in intellectual circles, it is called the missing link of development. This article defies the belief and assumes that there are different kinds of social capital and some kinds of it may have negative impact on development. Its out-group version which is based on the confidence of open groups and civil society can reduce exchange costs, expand confidence, and increase human capital only in certain circumstances with positive impact on the process of development. Also, it studies two different concepts of development in relation to social capital. The method of research is based on secondary analysis. To formulate constructs, various indices were selected from centers such as Statistical Center of Iran, Institute for Trade Studies and Research, National Survey of Iranian's Values and Attitudes, Vice-Presidency for Strategic Planning and Supervision, and some previous research and the hypotheses of research were tested by using AMOS software and model of structural equations. Statistical population is the whole of Iran and the unit of analysis is its provinces. Findings show that a negative correlation exists between out-group social capital and development, so that higher out-group social capital in a province leads to lower economic development in it. This intensifies as for the construct of second generation economic development.
Keywords: social capital, out-group social capital, economic development.
An Evaluation of the Process of Development in Iran in the Recent Century with an Emphasis on the Theory of Chaos and Game Theory
Mohammad Bagher Nobakht
Saeed Gholami Nataj Amiri
Change is a basic concept in analyzing development. In usual analyses influenced by Newtonian paradigm, change is considered transformation in the structure of the society. On the contrary, the structure of institutional analysis formed in the framework of quantum paradigm considers change as the transformation of the whole structure of the society. Of course, transformation of the whole structure of the society entails change in the components of the society. In other words, interaction between structure and agency or macro and micro social levels, determines the process of change in the society. A branch of new institutionalists, especially Douglas North (2009), define development as the process of having access to property rights. In this case, the relevance of structure and agency refers to the importance of institutions as the rule of the game, because the dynamism of accessibility is determined out of the result of the game between different social groups. In addition, the relevancy of institutions will depend on initial conditions and the proceeded path. Therefore, delineating the dynamism of change in society needs an analysis of the historical periods of interaction between structure and agency as well as a study of the process of change as breaking dependency on institutions leading to accessibility based on the property rights.
This article tries to predict the probable paths of development in the future, considering the attractiveness of relevant components of Iranian society and by devising an institutional model for analyzing development by combining theory of chaos and game theory and to evaluate development experience in Iran.
Keywords: development analysis, theory of chaos, game theory, Iranian development experience.